Table of contents:
- Unpaid cost to society from fossil CO2 released from UK incinerators
- UK incineration capacity (December 2018)
- Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) sent for incineration in England
- Regional Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) incineration and recycling rates in 2017/18
- Residual waste recyclability based on compositional analysis
- Fossil CO2 released per tonne of plastic incinerated
Unpaid cost to society from fossil CO2 released from UK incinerators
Incinerators emit large quantities of CO2, roughly one tonne of CO2 for every tonne incinerated. About half of this CO2 derives from fossil sources such as plastic. For decades incinerators have been releasing harmful greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without compensating society for the associated harm that this has caused. In June 2011 Defra acknowledged (in their Economics of Waste and Waste Policy publication) that incinerators were “creating GHG emissions without paying the relevant price”. Unlike power stations, waste incinerators are not part of the Emissions Trading Scheme, and therefore the relevant BEIS carbon prices to use are those for non-traded carbon.
|Year||Waste incinerated||Fossil CO2e
per tonne of
|Total cost to society
of fossil CO2e
|2017||10,883,000 tonnes [a]||0.458 tonnes [b]||4,984,414 tonnes [c]||£66.25 [d]||£330,217,428 [e]|
|2018||11,487,000 tonnes [f]||0.458 tonnes [b]||5,261,046 tonnes [c]||£67.25 [d]||£353,805,344 [e]|
|2019||12,626,000 tonnes [g]||0.526 tonnes [g]||6,641,276 tonnes [c]||£68.25 [d]||£453,267,087 [e]|
Sources / calculations: [a] 2017 UK EfW Statistics (Tolvik, June 2018), [b] Evaluation of the climate change impacts of waste incineration in the United Kingdom (UKWIN October 2018), [c] Tonnes of waste incinerated multiplied by tonnes of fossil CO2 per tonne, [d] Table 3: Carbon prices and sensitivities 2010-2100 for appraisal, £/tCO2e from Data tables 1 to 19: supporting the toolkit and the guidance (BEIS, March 2019), [e] Tonnes of fossil CO2 multiplied by non-traded carbon price, [f] 2018 UK EfW Statistics (Tolvik, June 2019) [g] 2019 UK EfW Statistics (Tolvik, June 2020)
UK incineration capacity (December 2019)
As we get closer to achieving our recycling targets there is increasingly less ‘residual’ waste available to burn. It has been estimated that there could be around 10.4 million tonnes of residual waste available by 2030 but we currently have around 16.85 million tonnes of capacity (Source). As such, the UK already faces incineration overcapacity, with more incineration capacity than genuinely residual waste available to burn. Despite this, there are dozens of proposals for new incinerators in the UK (see map/table) which, if built, would exacerbate overcapacity and come at the expense of opportunities to improve recycling. These facts underpin calls for a moratorium on new waste incineration capacity in the UK.
|Status||Number of Incinerators||Headline Incineration Capacity|
|Fully Operational||48 facilities||14.60 million tonnes|
|In Late Stage Commissioning||5 facilities||0.80 million tonnes|
|In Construction||12 facilities||3.10 million tonnes|
|Total||65 facilities||18.50 million tonnes|
Source: 2019 EfW Statistics (Tolvik, June 2020)
Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) sent for incineration in England
Between 2000/01 and 2001/02 Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) in England rose by 3%, and in 2002 the Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit noted that “at current rates of growth the amount of household rubbish will double by 2020” (Source). This alarming prospect was the basis for many long-term waste incineration contracts, but in reality instead of doubling to more than 50 million tonnes the level of total waste arisings has actually fallen by around 9% from 28.1 million tonnes in 2000/01 to 25.6 million tonnes in 2017/18.
However, whilst levels of waste arising have fallen the amount of waste sent for incineration has dramatically increased from only 2.4 million tonnes in 2000/01 to 10.8 million tonnes in 2017/18 (an increase of around 350%). Because this period has also seen an increase in recycling, the total percentage of waste sent for incineration has risen from 9% in 2001/01 to 42.3% in 2017/18 (a 370% increase in the proportion of waste sent for incineration). Such a high level of incineration is constraining the ability to meet recycling targets.
|Year||Total managed||Sent for incineration||% of waste sent for incineration|
|2000/01||28.1 million tonnes||2.4 million tonnes||9.0%|
|2001/02||28.9 million tonnes||2.4 million tonnes||8.0%|
|2002/03||29.4 million tonnes||2.6 million tonnes||9.0%|
|2003/04||29.1 million tonnes||2.6 million tonnes||9.0%|
|2004/05||29.6 million tonnes||2.8 million tonnes||9.5%|
|2005/06||28.7 million tonnes||2.9 million tonnes||10.0%|
|2006/07||29.2 million tonnes||3.2 million tonnes||11.1%|
|2007/08||28.5 million tonnes||3.2 million tonnes||11.1%|
|2008/09||27.4 million tonnes||3.3 million tonnes||12.2%|
|2009/10||26.6 million tonnes||3.6 million tonnes||13.6%|
|2010/11||26.3 million tonnes||4.0 million tonnes||15.1%|
|2011/12||25.6 million tonnes||4.9 million tonnes||19.1%|
|2012/13||25.1 million tonnes||5.5 million tonnes||21.9%|
|2013/14||25.6 million tonnes||6.2 million tonnes||24.4%|
|2014/15||25.8 million tonnes||7.8 million tonnes||30.2%|
|2015/16||26.1 million tonnes||9.3 million tonnes||35.4%|
|2017/17||26.3 million tonnes||10.2 million tonnes||38.6%|
|2017/18||25.6 million tonnes||10.8 million tonnes||42.3%|
|2018/19||25.6 million tonnes||11.0 million tonnes||43.8%|
Regional Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) incineration and recycling rates in 2018/19
For councils with above-average rates of incineration there is a clear correlation between higher rates of incineration and lower rates of recycling (Source). Defra statistics indicate that this trend can also be observed at a regional level, with a clear correlation between the rate of incineration and the rate of recycling. It can also be observed that:
- The South West region has the lowest rate of incineration (28.4%) and the highest rate of recycling (49.8%).
- London has the highest rate of incineration (59.3%) and the lowest rate of recycling (30.2%).
- In 4 of the 9 regions, councils are burning more than they recycle.
- In 7 of the 9 regions, to achieve a 65% recycling rate for Local Authority Collected Waste the proportion sent for incineration would need to decrease (yet new incinerators are being built and even more are being proposed).
- All 4 regions with above-average rates of incineration had below-average rates of recycling
|Region||Incineration Rate||Recycling Rate||Incineration rate exceeds 35%?||Incineration exceeds recycling?||Incineration above average?||Recycling below average?|
|Yorkshire and the Humber||49.2%||42.1%||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Residual waste recyclability based on compositional analysis
Much of what is incinerated is not genuinely residual waste, but rather valuable material that could and should have been recycled or composted. Compositional analysis studies show that there are many instances where the majority (i.e. over 50%) of ‘waste’ collected at the kerbside could have been recycled or composted had it been put into the correct bin. And this does not even take account of the opportunities for Councils to extend the range of materials they accept for recycling at the kerbside.
The vast majority of incinerators in the UK have no facility to remove recyclable material prior to incineration, and so all of the recyclable and compostable material delivered ends up in the incinerator. Difficult-to-recycle materials are increasingly being redesigned or phased out, meaning incinerators are becoming increasingly reliant upon burning recyclable and compostable material.
Regional and National Compositional Analysis
|Wales||C&I Residual||2019||“The majority of the [residual C&I] waste analysed (74.5% (+/- 2.4%) or 450,478 tonnes annually) could have potentially been recycled.”|
|England||Household Residual||2017||“Of total residual waste from household sources in England in 2017, an estimated 53% could be categorised as readily recyclable, 27% as potentially recyclable, 12% as potentially substitutable and 8% as difficult to either recycle or substitute.”|
|UK||Municipal Waste||2017||“Some recyclable materials are still found in household waste, meaning there are opportunities to increase recycling further.”|
|Northern Ireland||Kerbside Residual||2017||“The study estimates that 55% of the contents of the residual bin is made up of waste types that could commonly be recycled at the kerbside”|
|Wales||Kerbside Residual||2015||“In the kerbside collected residual waste stream, 48.9% of the material was widely recyclable”|
|North West of England||Landfilled C&I||2009||“…the recorded data suggests that up to 97.5% of the C&I waste landfilled in the [North West] region could be recycled if the correct facilities and services were available”|
|Scotland||Total MSW||2009||“The findings from this study suggest approximately three quarters (76%) of MSW in Scotland is made up of potentially recyclable and compostable material.”|
|Wales||C&I Residual||2007||“2007, when the proportion which could potentially have been recycled was 77% and an estimated 530,000 tonnes of recyclable materials were going to landfill.”|
See also: Northern Ireland Kerbside Waste Composition 2017 on a per-authority basis (WRAP, April 2018)
English Local Authority Compositional Analysis of Kerbside Waste
|Area||Year||% Recyclability of residual waste at kerbside (by weight)|
|Merseyside and Halton||2015-16||63% potentially recyclable (and 4.6% of the total kerbside waste was potentially usable, primarily textiles followed by WEEE)|
|Newcastle upon Tyne||2016||~50%+ (extrapolated from metals recycling vs remaining metals extracted through MBT)|
|St. Albans (Hertfordshire)||2015||65.78%|
|Wales||2015||48.9% widely recyclable|
|South Gloucestershire||2014-15||52% (and a further 10.1% through other existing services)|
Sources: Local Authority composition analysis (see above for links)
Fossil CO2 released per tonne of plastic incinerated
Incinerators burn plastic and so they are reliant upon fossil fuel (as most plastics are made from crude oil). The small amount of energy produced by incinerators is generated inefficiently and comes at a high climate cost (see above).
When carbon (C) is incinerated it is combined with oxygen (O) which turns it into CO2. One can convert carbon content (% Carbon) to Fossil CO2 by multiplying by 44/12 (3.6667). Thus, to derive the CO2 release by the incineration of one tonne of Dense Plastic (which has a carbon content of 54.8%) one multiplies 0.548 by 3.6667 to get around 2.01 tonnes of Fossil CO2.
|Type||% Carbon||Fossil CO2 released per tonne of plastic incinerated|
|Plastic Film||47.8%||1.753 tonnes of Fossil CO2|
|Dense Plastic||54.8%||2.01 tonnes of Fossil CO2|